Friday, April 26, 2013

DEFINISI direct and inderect.docx



DEFINISI
Direct speech adalah kata-kata (kalimat) yang diucapkan langsung dari pembicara. Kalimat tersebut tidak diubah atau ditambah.
Indirect speech adalah kata-kata(kalimat) direct speech yang diceritakan kembali dengan cara lain, tetapi tidak mengubah dengan tidak mengulangi lagi pembicaraan.

PENJELASAN
Untuk lebih memahami perbedaan antara direct speeh dengan indirect speech dapat dilihat dari contoh dibawah ini :
• He said : “ I am very hungry” (Direct speech)
• He said that he was very hungry (Indirect speech)

Catatan :
Dari contoh diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa perbedaan antara direct speech dan indirect speech adalah bahwa dalam direct speech atau kalimat langsung memakai tanda kutip sedangkan dalam indirect speech atau kalimat tidak langsung tanda kutip tidak dipakai.

Direct dan Indirect speech dapat dibagi dalam 3 bagian :
1. Command (Perintah)
2. Statement (Pernyataan)
3. Question (Pertanyaan)


COMMAND

Command terdiri dari 2 jenis :
Positive Command
Negative Command

Positive Command
Dalam pola ini kalimat pengantar dinyatakan dengan kata kerja : tell, ask, advise, etc. Diikuti oleh to infinitive.
Kalimat pengantar :

He asked me to
He told me to + reporter words
He ordered to

contoh-contoh positive command :
Direct : The teacher said to me : “open your book”
Indirect : The teacher asked me to open my book

Direct : The doctor said to me : ”stay in bed for a few days”
Indirect : The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days

Direct : They ordered him : “wait until we turn”
Indirect : They ordered him to wait until they turn

Negative Command

Kalimat pengantar :
He asked me
He told me not to + reporter words
He ordered me

Contoh-contoh negative command :
• Direct : Father asked me : “ Don’t go out”
Indirect : Father asked me no to go out

• Direct : He said to me :’’Don’t make the same mistake again”
Indirect : He told me not to make the same mistake again

• Direct : She ordered anna :”Please don’t make me confused”
Indirect : She ordered anna not to make her confused

STATEMENT
Dalam indirect statement, “that” digunakan sebagai penghubung antar kalimat pengantar dan kata-kata yang dilaporkan (reported speech)
Kalimat pengantar dalam statement :
He said
+that+reported words
He told me

Contoh-contoh :
• Direct : He said, “Adi is ill”
Indirect : He said that adi was ill

• Direct : She told me, “I am studying English now”
Indirect : she told me that she was studying English now

• Direct : Rina said, “he will work hard”
Indirect : Rina said that he would work hard

• Direct : He told me, “ I have written a letter”
Indirect : He told me that I had written a letter

• Direct : She said, “ I have been working here for 3 years”
Indirect : She said that he had been working here for 3 years:





Catatan:
Ada beberapa perubahan perubahan dari Direct ke Indirect Speech
1. To be and Auxiliries

2. Time and Place

3. Tenses

QUESTION
Bila pertanyaan langsung dalam bentuk YES dan NO answer maka IF atau WHETHER sebagai pendukung antara introductory phrase dan reported words.
Kalimat pengantar untuk pola ialah :
He asked me IF/WHETHER………
Contoh-contoh :
Direct : we asked the man “Do you like coffe?”
Indirect : we asked the man if/whether he liked coffe

Direct : seisy asked Helen : “have you seen that film?”
Indirect : seisy asked Helen if/whether she had seen that film
Direct : we asked him :”will you be doing anything by this time tomorrow?”
Indirect : we asked him if/whether he would be doing anything by this time tomorrow
Auxiliaries
Direct : the man asked me :’’can you speak English?
Indirect : the man asked me if/whether I could speak English


Bila pertanyaan menggunakan kata-kata Tanya seperti : where, when, what, why, who,whose,how,etc. maka kata-kata tersebut berfungsi sebagai penghubung antara introductory pharse dan reported words, dengan pola sbb:
He asked me + Question Words+reported words(positive)


Contoh-contoh :
Direct : we asked the man :’where do you live?”
Indirect : we asked the man where he lived
Direct : we asked him :’’ where were you going by 5 p.m yesterday?”
Indirect : we asked him where he had been going by 5 p.m yesterday

MIXED TYPE (GABUNGAN)
Bila suatu pernyataan(statement), dan pertanyaan (question) digabung maka digunakan kata penghubung AND dan AS. Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut ini:
Direct : adi said to seisi : I’am off to the movie. Where are you going?
Indirect : adi said to seisi that he was off to the movie and asked where she was going
Direct : the man asked me :’’what time is it? My watch has stopped’’
Indirect : the man asked me what time it was as his watch had stopped

Bila suatu pertanyaan dan jawabannya (YES & NO) digabung, maka digunakan kata penghubung AND dan BUT. Contoh :
Direct : I asked him:’’Do you like this?Yes, (I do)
Indirect : I asked him if/whether he liked that and he said he did
Direct : nia asked doni :’’will you go out tonight? No, (I won’t)
Indirect : nia asked donin if/whether he would go out that night but he said he wouldn’t

Beberapa hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan
A Must
Dalam bentuk present
Must menjadi Had to
Contoh :
Direct :She told me, “You must stay She told me that
Indirect :here until 11.00” I had to stay there until 11.00

Dalam bentuk future
Must menjadi would have to
Contoh:
Direct :She told me,”you must come again tomorrow"
Indirect :She told me that I would have to come the following day

Larangan atau hukuman
Must menjadi musn’t/wasn’t to
Direct :He told me,”you musn’t drive a car without license"
Indirect :He told me that I musn’t a car without a license drive


B. Kebenaran umum tidak mengalami perubahan tense
Contoh :
Direct : he told me,’’the sun rises in the east”
Indirect : he told me the sun rises in the east

C. Offers (Menawarkan)
Contoh :
Direct : “shall I bring you some tea?”
Indirect :he offered to bring me some tea
D. Let’s
Let’s biasanya menyatakan suatu ajakan dan kemudian menjadi suatu saran dalam indirect speech
Contoh :
Direct : He said,”let’s leave the case at the station”
Indirect : He suggested leaving the case at the station

E . Exclamation
Exclamations(seruan,heran,kagum,dsb). Harus menjadi suatu pernyataan dalam indirect speech
Contoh:
Direct : he said,”what a beautiful hair she has!”
Indirect : he said that she had a beautiful hair
Direct : he said,”what a dreadful thing!”
Indirect : he said that it was a dreadful thing

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